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Monday, December 15, 2008

Which of the following is transmitted by soil Coccidiodomycosis Tetanus Anthrax.

Question 39
Which of the following is not transmitted by soil / not found in Soil
a.       Coccidiodomycosis
b.      Tetanus
c.       Brucella
d.      Anthrax.
c. Brucella
Harrison 15th Edition Chapter 222
Park 18th Edition Page 249
Ananthanarayanan 7th Edition Page 241, 345
Most Books
Ä     Human disease may result from contaminated soil, due to unsanitary practices for disposal of excreta, improper or inadequate sewage treatment, or unfavourable climatic conditions.
Ä     Basically, the types of diseases emanating from soil contamination can be divided into three main categories.
o       Man-soil-man diseases result from contamination of soil by human excreta from which disease is contracted by either direct skin contact or consumption of food grown in such soil; examples include enteric bacteria and protozoa, and parasitic worms (helminths).
o       Animal-soil-man diseases result from contact with soil previously contaminated with excreta of animal carriers, cadavers, and any part of infected animal bodies. Among this latter category can be found anthrax, leptospirosis, and Q fever.
o       The third category of disease is a result of fertile climatic conditions inducing the proliferation of a pathogen from microorganisms growing in the soil. The mycoses, tetanus and botulism join this subdivision.
a.       Coccidioidomycosis is transmitted by Soil (Harrison 15th Edition Chapter 222)
b.      Natural habitat of bacteria causing tetanus is soil and dust (Park 18th Page 249)
c.       Brucella are strict parasites of animals and may also infect humans (Ananthanarayanan 7th Edition Page 345)
d.      Anthrax is transmitted by soil (Ananthanarayanan 7th Edition Page 241)
C. immitis is a soil saprophyte found in certain arid regions of the United States, Mexico, Central America, and South America. Within the United States, most cases of infection with C. immitis are acquired in California, Arizona, and western Texas. A few cases are acquired by exposure to fomites from endemic areas (e.g., in cotton bales).
Infection in humans and animals results from inhalation of wind-borne arthrospores from soil sites. T
Ä     Many of the diseases result from inadequate pretreatment of soil reused as fertilizer, or waste water reclaimed for irrigation purposes. Conventional sewage treatment processes cannot remove all the pathogenic organisms, although success of removal generally parallels removal rates for coliform organisms.

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