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Monday, December 15, 2008

KAP studies were initially used for Family Planning

Question 37
KAP studies were initially used for
a. HIV
b. Family Planning
c. Malaria
d. Cancer Cervix
b. Family Planning
Park 18th page 358-359.
Specific References are given along with the Discussion
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Discussion and Explanation – KAP Studies on Family Planning
Ä     Family Planning Program in India: An Evaluation :
o       Roy C. Treadway, Jacqueline E. Forrest :
o       Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 4, No. 6 (Jun., 1973), pp. 149-156
o       doi:10.2307/1964798
o       The KAP study was done in 1968
Ä     Title: Family planning program in India: an evaluation.
o       POPLINE Document Number: 731143
o       Author(s): Treadway RC, Forrest JE
o       Source citation: Studies in Family Planning, June 1973;4(6):149-156.
o       Abstract: In 1968 and 1969 the Program Evaluation Organisation of the Planning Commission of India evaluated the Indian family planning program by conducting 2 separate studies. The first (September-December, 1968) consisted of 2 parts: 1) a sample of 69 rural clinics in 16 states and 1 Union Territory to study program accomplishments; 2) a sample of 6949 males (including 944 local leaders) to analyze knowledge, attitudes, and practice. Acceptance of contraceptive methods was analyzed in the second study (March-May 1969) which involved 5708 acceptors (3268 from villages, 854 from urban areas and 1586 from cities). The condom was the most widely used method (12 couples per 1000 population) followed by vasectomy (6.6 couples per 1000 population) and the IUD (5.6 couples per 1000 population). Awareness of methods in villages was most strongly influenced by the number of visits made by the family planning staff; the proportion of the population accepting a method was most strongly correlated with the holding of group meetings. Acceptance was also influenced by the availability and quality of facilities as evidenced by the higher acceptance rates in cities compared to towns and rural areas. Of the males interviewed, 49% of the general respondents and 31% of the local leaders wanted more children; these proportions decreased as the number of living sons increased. Local leaders favored longer spacing intervals. 77% of the general sample knew where to find family planning services compared to 93% of the leaders; those knowing about some method of contraception were 76% and 91% respectively. Vasectomy was the best known method (mentioned by 87% of the general respondents and 93% of the local leaders) followed by the IUD, condom, and tubectomy. Only 11% of the general respondents were using a method and only 21% of the local leaders were. Sterilization was generally favored but few supported its use before the third child. Abortion, still illegal at the time of the study, was approved by 1/8 of the general respondents and by 1/3 of the local leaders, mostly to avoid risk to mother's life. Of the acceptors (2882 vasectomy, 451 tubectomy, 2375 IUD) 2/3 were practicing family limitation. Rural acceptors were generally older and of higher parity than urban or city women. The family planning staff was an important source of information and influence on the particular method selected. Friends were more important in cities as a source of influence. Security and ease of pregnancy prevention were the reasons for adoption most often cited (by 54%, 69%, and 75% of the IUD, tubectomy and vasectomy acceptors respectively). To reach India's goal of a crude birth rate of 25 per 1000 by 1979, innovative programs may be required in addition to the continuation of present efforts.
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Other early studies on Family Planning
Ä     INDIA: UN Mission Evaluation of the Family Planning Program
o       Emil Sady, Basilio Aromin, William Seltzer, C. E. Gurr, Y. V. Lakshmana Rao
o       Studies in Family Planning, Vol. 1, No. 56 (Aug., 1970), pp. 4-18
o       doi:10.2307/1965084
Ä     Do incentives matter? – Evaluation of a family planning program in India
o       Authors: Sunil T.S.; Pillai V.K.; Pandey A.
o       Source: Population Research and Policy Review, Volume 18, Number 6, December 1999 , pp. 563-577(15)
o       Publisher: Springer
o       Abstract: Indian Family Planning programs in the past have introduced a number of approaches such as providing monetary benefits, and motivational programs to improve contraceptive use among rural illiterate women. Under the Ammanpettai family welfare program, the Melatur PHC administered three program types involving a combination of monetary and motivational approaches to improve contraceptive use in three treatment areas. The program was introduced during January 1989 and was simultaneously discontinued after a period of two years. The present evaluation was conducted in 1994. Data from a random sample of 933 non-sterilized women at the time of social survey using a questionnaire approach is used in this study. The implementation of incentive programs in a socio-economically homogenous population has resulted in an increase in the likelihood of current of contraceptive use. The results of this study suggest that motivational programs are more likely to improve long term use of temporary family planning methods than cash incentive programs. One implication of our finding is that motivational programs should provide peer based family planning education and training in community work to contact persons who make door to door visits to promote family planning programs.
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