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Thursday, March 01, 2007



219) Maxillary Sinus Opens

a. Superior Meatus

b. Infundibulum

c. Inferior Meatus

d. None of the above

Answer : (b) Infundibulum

Reference: PL Dhingra 3rd Edition Page

220) Tensor of the Vocal cord

a. Cricothyroid

b. Posterior Crico arytenoids

c. Lateral crico arytenoids

d. Thyro arytenoids

Answer : (a) Cricothyroid

Reference: Gray 38th Edition Page 1645

Action of Intrinsic Muscles of Larynx

Ä Varying the Rima Glottidis

Ä The posterior crico-arytenoids are the only laryngeal muscles which open the glottis, rotating the arytenoid cartilages laterally around an axis passing through the crico-arytenoid joints, thus separating the vocal processes and the attached vocal folds. They also pull the arytenoids backwards, assisting the cricothyroids to tense the vocal folds. The most lateral fibres draw the arytenoids laterally, so the rima glottidis becomes triangular when the posterior crico-arytenoid muscles contract.

Ä The lateral crico-arytenoids close the glottis by rotating the arytenoids medially, to approximate their vocal processes. The transverse arytenoid pulls the arytenoid cartilages towards each other, closing the posterior (intercartilaginous) part of the rima glottidis.

Ä Regulating Tension in the Vocal Ligaments

Ä The cricothyroids stretch the vocal ligaments by tilting the thyroid cartilage forwards and downwards on the cricoid. Because the arytenoid cartilages are anchored to the cricoid lamina, the sagittally directed rotation of the thyroid cartilage increases the distance between their vocal processes and the anterior angle of the thyroid, so lengthening the vocal ligaments. The cricoid is usually held immovably against the vertebral column by the cricopharyngeus during phonation so that under these conditions it is the thyroid cartilage which moves. During swallowing, however, the cricopharyngeus relaxes, allowing the cricoid to tilt forwards during laryngeal closure.

Ä The thyro-arytenoids draw the arytenoids towards the thyroid cartilage, shortening and relaxing the vocal ligaments. At the same time, they rotate the arytenoids medially to approximate the vocal folds. Their deeper fibres, the vocales, relax the posterior parts of the vocal ligaments, their anterior parts remaining tense and thus raising the vocal pitch. For details of arytenoid movements consult Sellars.

Ä Modifying the Laryngeal Inlet

Ä The oblique arytenoids and aryepiglottic act as a sphincter of the laryngeal inlet by adducting the aryepiglottic folds and approximating the arytenoid cartilages to the tubercle of the epiglottis.

Ä The thyro-epiglottic muscles widen the inlet by their action on the aryepiglottic folds.

221) Prime modality of Rx of Naso Pharyngeal Ca –

a. Radiotherapy

b. Surgery

c. Chemotherapy

d. None of these

Answer : (a) Radiotherapy

Reference: PL Dhingra 3rd Edition Page 305 and Bailey and Love 24th Edition Page 749, 750

222) Access to airway is gained during emergency by

a. Endotraceal tube

b. Emergency Tracheostomy

c. Crico thyroidotomy

d. All of these

Answer : (d) All of these

Reference: PL Dhingra 3rd Edition Page 386

223) Which of the following structure is seen in Oro Pharynx

a. Pharyngotympanic tube

b. Fossa of Rosenmuller

c. Palatine Tonsil.

d. Piriform Fossa

Answer : (C ) Palatine Tonsil

Reference: Gray 3rd Edition Page 1729

224) Organ of corti is situated in

a. Basilar membrane

b. Utricle

c. Saccule

d. None of the above

Answer : (a) Basilar Membrane

Reference: Gray 38th Edition Page 1387

225) The presenting symptoms in majority cases of Acoustic Neuroma is

a. Hearing Loss

b. Vertigo

c. Signs of Space occupying lesions

d. None of the above

Answer : (a) Hearing Loss

Reference: PL Dhingra 3rd Edition Page 144

226) The opening in case of Dacrocysto rhinostomy is made in

a. Superior Meatus

b. Middle Meatus

c. Inferior Meatus

d. None of the above

Answer : (b) Middle Meatus

Reference: Basak 3rd Edition Page 302

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