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Tuesday, January 06, 2009

Which of the following is not true regarding Recommended Daily Allowance

Question 49
Which of the following is not true regarding Recommended Daily Allowance
a.       Meets dietary requirements of all people
b.      Based on recommendation by group of experts
c.       Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), expected to satisfy the needs of 50% of the people in that age group.
d.      Reference Daily Intake (RDI), the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group.
Answer
a. Meets dietary recommendation by a group of experts
Reference
Park 18th Edition Page 457
QTDF
Park
Quality
Thinker
Status
New
Discussion
The Dietary Reference Intake is a system of nutrition recommendations from the Institute of Medicine of the USA National Academy (IOM). The DRI system is used by both the United States and Canada. It is intended for the general public and health professionals. Applications include:
  • Food labels in the United States and Canada
  • Composition of diets for schools, prisons, hospitals or nursing homes
  • Industries developing new food stuffs
  • Healthcare policy makers and public health officials
In 1997, at the suggestion of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy, the RDA became one part of a broader, more detailed set of dietary guidelines, called the Dietary Reference Intake.
Ä     The Recommended Dietary Allowance (RDA) was developed during World War II by Lydia J. Roberts, Hazel K. Stiebeling and Helen S. Mitchell
Ä     The final set of guidelines, called RDAs for Recommended Dietary Allowances, were accepted in 1941.
Ä     The allowances were meant to provide superior nutrition for civilians and military personnel, so they included a “margin of safety”.
Ä     The Food and Nutrition Board subsequently revised the RDAs every five to ten years.
Explanation
a.       Meets dietary requirements of all healthy people. It is important to emphasize that the recommendations intake of nutrients does not apply to sick people
b.      Based on recommendation by group of experts
c.       Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), expected to satisfy the needs of 50% of the people in that age group.
d.      Reference Daily Intake (RDI), the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group.
Comments
The current Dietary Reference Intake recommendation is composed of:
  • Estimated Average Requirements (EAR), expected to satisfy the needs of 50% of the people in that age group.
  • Reference Daily Intake (RDI), the daily dietary intake level of a nutrient considered sufficient to meet the requirements of nearly all (97–98%) healthy individuals in each life-stage and gender group.
  • Adequate Intake (AI), where no RDI has been established, but the amount established is somewhat less firmly believed to be adequate for everyone in the demographic group.
  • Tolerable upper intake levels (UL), to caution against excessive intake of nutrients (like vitamin D) that can be harmful in large amounts.
The RDI is used to determine the Recommended Daily Value (RDV) which is printed on food labels in the U.S. and Canada.
Tips
In India, it is the Indian Council of Medical Research (ICMR) that sets up Nutrition Advisory Committees or Expert Groups and recommend the "Dietary Allowances" in respect of energy (Calories), proteins, fats, minerals, iron, vitamins etc. for various age groups within the population including special groups like infants, pregnant/nursing mothers, children etc. and at the same time recommend dietary allowance by activity groupings also. These Committees/Expert Group also recommend weighted average per capita requirements for the population of the country as a whole, to enable the policy-makers plan for production or procurement of the required quantities of various foodstuffs. The first Nutrition Advisory Committee of ICMR had made its recommendations way back in 1944. The recommendations have been reviewed, up-dated and amended ever since, generally at intervals of ten years. Such reviews and revised recommendations have been made in 1958, 1968, 1978, 1984 and 1990. The 1984 Recommendations had specially observed that "RDA (Recommended Dietary Allowance) for Indians are being revised and updated at intervals of about 10 years in view of the changes in our concept of human requirements of several nutrients as a result of studies carried out during the previous decade" (ICMR pub. 1984).
The most recent recommendations available are those made by the Expert Group of ICMR in 1990.

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